Blackwell Publishing

Authors - Preparing the Text

References

It is very helpful to the smooth and timely processing of your typescript if you can ensure that everything is in order when the manuscript is presented. The majority of copy-editing queries are generated because of incomplete or inaccurate information in references, which can lead to delays in the production process. 

There are two main reference systems: Harvard  (name/date) and Vancouver  (Arabic numbers used sequentially). 
This section covers: 

  • Your responsibilities as author, editor or contributor
  • General points
  • An overview of the Harvard and Vancouver systems       

Please note, the examples of Harvard and Vancouver references given below are intended to be a guide only. Your editor will send you specific house style guidelines. If you have any queries, please ask your editor. 

Your responsibilities

As the author or contributor, you are responsible for using the reference system specified by Wiley-Blackwell. This includes:

  • Checking the accuracy of the information given in the references (e.g. providing correct spellings of authors' names)
  • Ensuring that the text citation appears in the reference list at the end of the chapter and that any references in the list are cited in the text
  • Ensuring that the information in the text citation and the reference list match       

If you are the editor, you are responsible for: 

  • Checking that contributing authors provide complete and accurate references both in the text and the reference list, and that the style of the references is consistent throughout the manuscript       
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General points

  • Do not use linked fields (produced by EndNote and other reference programs) or bookmarks to insert references; type them in by hand
  • Except for Readers, where the original reference system should be retained within each reading if it has been published before, use a consistent scheme throughout the manuscript for reference citations. Please do not mix the two systems so that, for example, you have numbered reference indicators in the text and the actual Reference list(s) in alphabetical order by author. Please do not use name, date and numbers as text indicators
  • If your book is in a series, you should follow the series style for references
  • In the Reference list, if a book or journal article has seven or more authors, list the names of the first three authors, followed by et al. If there are six authors or less, list all of their names
  • Cite the edition of the book that contains the reference, even if it is not the current edition
  • Use italic (rather than underlining ) for journal and book titles
  • Use initial capitals for book and journal titles, and an initial capital for the first word only for journal articles and book chapters. Please do not give journal articles or book chapters in quotation marks
  • Unpublished references should generally be listed in parentheses in the text but should not appear in the reference list, e.g. (S. Shorvon, unpublished observations, 2000) or (J. Pickup, personal communication, 1999)
  • It is not necessary to give the total page extents of books and theses
  • The dates in the Reference section should match up with the date in the citation in the text
  • Institutions cited as authors should be given in abbreviated form where referred to in the text but given in full in the reference list, e.g. (WHO 1989); World Health Organisation, Geneva (1989) Fisheries Handbook
  • The reference should include the full name of the article, paper or book
  • The reference should include the journal name and volume number if appropriate. This can be abbreviated but please make sure that the same abbreviations are used throughout your manuscript for the same journal. Follow official international listings wherever you can and explain all abbreviations
  • References from books should include the name of the publisher plus their location       

If a book was published by Blackwell Science before 1994, the publisher should be listed as Blackwell Scientific Publications; if it was published during or after 1994, the publisher should be listed as Blackwell Science. If a book was published by Basil Blackwell or Blackwell Publishers before or during 2001, the publisher may simply be listed as Blackwell Publishers. If published from 2002 onwards, in all cases the publisher should be listed as Blackwell Publishing. 

There are two main reference systems: Harvard (name/date) and Vancouver (Arabic numbers used sequentially).

 
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The Harvard System

  • This is the author-date system and is the preferred style at Blackwell, unless the text is very heavily referenced in which case the Vancouver (numbered) system may be more appropriate
  • The Harvard system takes up slightly more room in the text than the Vancouver system but it gives the reader more information about the reference without consulting the reference list
  • If references are added or deleted, this system is relatively easy to amend: if you find that you need to add an extra reference early on, you do not have to renumber all the references in a chapter, which you would have to when using the Vancouver system       

Style of text citation

  • For a single author use 'Gaston (1995) suggested that ...' or '... demonstrated in three different species (Gaston 1995)'
  • If there are two authors use Gaston and Spicer (2000) or (Gaston & Spicer 2000)
  • If there are three or more authors use the name of the first author followed by et al., e.g. 'Bell et al. (1989) showed that ...'
  • Add a, b, c etc. to distinguish between two or more references with the same author name and year date (e.g. Roitt 1999a,b)
  • List a string of references in chronological order, e.g. (Black 1985; Black 1991; Smith & Baker 1995, or Smith and Black 1995; Carruthers 1999)
  • When citing an anonymous editorial in a journal use the name of the journal and the date, e.g. ( Lancet 1998) and list this reference under 'L' in the list of references       

Style of list citation

  • Reference lists should appear at the end of each chapter or at the end of the book under the heading 'References'
  • List references in alphabetical order by author; do not number the list
  • For references starting with the same surname and initials, list single-author works first, in chronological order; list two-author works second, in alphabetical order of the second author, then chronologically; list multi-author works third, arranged only chronologically: 

    Brown, F. (1999) 
    Brown, F. & Smith, J. (1989) 
    Brown, F. & Vested, K. (1983a) 
    Brown, F. & Vested, K. (1983b) 
    Brown, F., King, L., Evans, R. & Eliot, W. (1987) 
    Brown, F., Evans, R. & King, L. (1990) 
  • Order the items within each reference (authors' surnames, initials, journal article title, journal title, volume number and page range) in a consistent way. Reordering is a very time-consuming process       

Examples of Harvard references

Please note, the examples below are intended to be a guide only. The exact style used here will not necessarily be imposed if you have used a consistent, orderly and unambiguous system. 

Adams, A.B. (1983a) Article title: subtitle. Journal Title 46 (Suppl. 2), 617-619. 

Adams, A.B. (1983b) Book Title. Publisher, New York. 

Bennett, W.P., Hoskins, M.A., Brady, F.P. et al. (1993) Article title. Journal Title 334 , 31-35. 

Cummings, M. (1995) Chapter title: subtitle. In: Smith, D., Jones, A.B. & Porter, N. (eds.) Book Title . Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp. 12-28. 

Docherty, K.J. (ed.) (1998) Book Title . Blackwell Publishers, Oxford. 

Lessells, D.E. (1989) Chapter title. In: Arnold, J.R. & Davies, G.H.B. (eds.) Book Title , 3rd edn. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 32-68. 

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The Vancouver system

  • This is a numbered system. The references are numbered sequentially as they occur in the text and are ordered numerically in the reference list
  • Do not order the references alphabetically in the reference list. This will result in non-sequential numbering in the text
  • References in figure captions and tables should be cited as though they were in the main body of the text, and listed in the correct numerical sequence in the reference list
  • The Vancouver system of referencing takes up less space in the text than the Harvard system but no information about the reference is apparent from the citation in the text. Please ensure that, if using this system, your list of references is complete and correct as it is very time-consuming and expensive to amend on page-proofs if references are added or deleted       

Style of text citation

  • References within the text may be given either as numbers within square brackets, e.g. 'It has been proven [15-18] ...' or 'Williams [1,4] has demonstrated that ...' or as superscript numbers, e.g. 'it has been shown in tests that pigs can fly 1 .' Whichever style you use, please make sure it is consistent throughout; do not mix styles       

Style of list citation, if you are using square brackets

  • Reference lists should appear at the end of each chapter
  • List references in the order in which they appear in the text (omitting the square brackets around the number)
  • Order the items within each reference (author(s) surname(s), initials, journal article title, journal title, volume number and page range) in a consistent way. Please ensure that, if using this system, your list of references is complete and correct, as it is very time-consuming and expensive to amend on page-proofs if references are added or deleted       

Style of list citation, if you are using superscript numbers

  • It is essential the numbers appear in correct sequence throughout the text, e.g. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , etc., not as 1 , 3 , 4 , 2 , etc.
  • The reference number should appear within the punctuation if it is at the end of a sentence
  • If you want all the references to be grouped at the end of the book, rather than at the ends of chapters, the reference indicators should be point numbered by chapter, e.g. those in chapter 1 should run 1.1 , 1.2 , etc., those in chapter 2 should be 2.1 , 2.2
  • Do not assign more than one text number citation to the same reference. If you need to repeat the text indicator please use the original number assigned to it. A duplication of the text indicator number is acceptable even if it is a repetition of an earlier number       

Examples of Vancouver references

Please note, the examples below are intended to be a guide only. The exact style used here will not necessarily be imposed if you have used a consistent, orderly and unambiguous system. 

1. Adams, A.B. (1983) Article title: subtitle. Journal Title 46 (Suppl. 2), 617-619. 

2. Lessells, D.E. (1989) Chapter title. In: Arnold, J.R. & Davies, G.H.B. (eds.) Book Title , 3rd edn. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 32-68. 

3. Bennett, W.P., Hoskins, M.A., Brady, F.P. et al. (1993) Article title. Journal Title 334 , 31-35. 

4. Cummings, M. (1995) Chapter title: subtitle. In: Smith, D., Jones, A.B. & Porter, N. (eds.) Book Title . Blackwell Science, Oxford. 

5. Adams, A.B. (1983) Book Title . Publisher, New York. 

6. Docherty, K.J. (ed.) (1998) Book Title . Blackwell Publishers, Oxford. 

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