Preparing Mathematics in Word

The Basics

  • All displayed equations and all inline mathematics – even single variables – must be generated in MathType /Equation Editor 3.0.
  • No mathematics should be inserted into the text as graphics, or keyed in as text.
  • No equations should be partially set in MathType /Equation Editor 3.0 and partially keyed in as text.
  • Always submit a PDF to your in–house contact in addition to the Word version of manuscript, so we know how it’s supposed to look.

Using MathType

This can be acquired from and is available for Mac and PC. MathType is very flexible and we recommend you use fixed preferences and follow standard styles for all equations – see below screen capture for details:

Using MathType

Using Equation Editor 3.0

In Microsoft Word, go to Insert–Object and select Microsoft Equation 3.0. (If you are working in Word 2007, do not use the default equation editor: ‘π Equation’)

Benefits of using MathType or Equation Editor 3.0

  • The equations and mathematics do NOT need to be rekeyed by the Wiley typesetter, which reduces the possibility of introducing errors.
  • Wiley is able to convert the material without any rekeying to MathML for inclusion in our XML–based digital products.
  • MathML lets you use and re–use mathematical and scientific content on the web.
  • MathML deals with both the representation and the meaning of the mathematics, so that web pages with MathML embedded equations can be searched for and viewed as normal web pages across many different browsers.
  • The mathematics and equations can be reflowed to fit the viewing device being used.
  • MathML can be used as input to computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica, for example, to display graphs of equations, supporting either additional Wiley functionality and/or the customer’s use of such systems.

Sending a PDF

We treat the PDF you send us as the master version, so check the PDF carefully, particularly the rendering of the inline mathematics and displayed equations.

If you’re working with Word 2007 there is a freeware plug-in to convert Word files directly to PDF. If you’re working with Word 2010 please see

How to minimize intervention from the typesetter

Here are a few ways that you can minimize manual intervention in your equations:

  • Where an equation breaks over two or more lines, ensure it is given in a single MathType/Equation Editor 3.0 equation.
  • Make sure the size of the brackets is appropriate to the nature of the equation.
  • Punctuation at the end of displayed equation should be included within the MathType/Equation Editor 3.0 equation.
  • Punctuation after complex inline equations should be set outside the MathType/Equation Editor 3.0 equation.
  • Numbered equations should be numbered with the chapter number and the equation number, sequentially throughout the chapter. For example, the third numbered equation in Chapter 4 would be numbered 4.3. Do not insert the equation number from within the equations editor. Use a tab separator between the equation and the number.

Fonts and styles

For MathType use ‘Factory Settings’ (Style–Define–Advanced–Factory Settings; select ‘Use for new equations’).

For Equation Editor, use the default styles (Style–Define).

Changing the settings and fonts can cause problems. If you use any fonts that are not included in the normal MathType/Equation Editor font set, list them clearly when submitting.

If you copy a MathType equation from another document, make sure you copy the equation from within the MathType window, rather than from the text, and then paste it into a new MathType window. From ‘Preferences’ select ‘Load from Factory Settingsā€¦’ then select ‘Use for new equations’ and click ‘OK’.

Mathematics and physics

Variables – Typeset in italic, e.g. (a + y). Two–letter variables, e.g. KE for kinetic energy, should be set in roman to prevent misreading as a product of two variables.

Vectors – No arrow above the letter – rather typeset in bold, e.g. (a). (Most vectors used in physics are variable vectors; see below.)

Variable vectors – Typeset in bold italic, e.g. (i)

Matrices – Inline: typeset in bold caps, e.g. [I]. Display: set within square brackets. (Most matrices used in physics are variable matrices; see below.)

Variable matrices – Typeset in bold italic caps, e.g. (B). Ellipses in matrices should consist of three points – ‘...’ (vertical or horizontal).

Sub and Superscripts: words and abbreviations – If a superscript or subscript is a word or an abbreviation, typeset in roman.

Sub and Superscripts: single letters – Most single–letter subscripts and superscripts and all numerical sub– and superscripts are set roman. Exception: Subscripts representing a running number (e.g. n in the sense of 1, 2, 3...) or quantities (e.g. P and V indicating specific heat) are typeset in italic. Differential d – Typeset in roman.

Constants; Mathematical constants, e.g., e – Typeset in roman. Constants: Physical constants, e.g. speed of light c, Planck’s constant h, Boltzmann constant, etc. – Typeset in italic.

Functions and operators – Named (abbreviated) functions and operators, such as ‘log’, ‘ln’, ‘exp’, ‘Im’, ‘Re’, ‘lim’, ‘max’, and ‘tr’, and trigonometric functions, such as ‘sin’, ‘tan’, etc., are set in roman. They do not take full points. These functions are followed by a space, then the numerical value. However there is no space if the argument (symbol or number) is enclosed in parentheses, brackets, or braces.

Symbols for scientific units – Typeset in roman.

Ellipses - Include a comma (and space) after the three ellipsis dots when the final term follows, e.g. x1, x2,..., xn. Only ellipses indicating omissions in series or lists are set on the line. Ellipses indicating missing terms in equations are centered vertically.

Simple fractions – Simple fractions in the text should be stacked vertically.

Wiley House Style: Mathematics and statistics

Equations should be punctuated as if text. Use appropriate punctuation to introduce the equation, separate expressions and at the end of the equation as appropriate. Chemistry, Communications Technology and Engineering titles: equations should not be punctuated as if text.

Use stacked fractions in display. Don’t use soliduses (e.g. a/bx), or negative superscripts (e.g. a(bx)–1). If displayed equations break try to break them before an operation symbol (e.g. = < > + - x) that follows a bracket. Fractions, matrices and expressions contained within brackets should not be broken if at all possible.

Order of brackets/fences is as follows – {[()]} – starting with () and working from the inside out. Brackets should appear in pairs.

Inline equations. Avoid in–line expressions that require lines of type to spread – i.e. overbars, summation signs, stacked fractions, etc. Either set in display rather than in–line, or, if the fraction is more complex and cannot be stacked as a single character, use negative superscripts, e.g. a(bx)-1. Avoid breaking equations in line – rather display them. Use negative superscripts in preference to soliduses, i.e. follow SI specifications.